The short answer is no. The long answer is that cryptos are a little like plants. They are all basically the same, but their specific features and goals can be very different, and the way we choose to use them can also vary widely.
There are three general categories of cryptos, Currencies; Platforms; Applications.
These are the cryptos that we generally think about as being a cryptocurrency. First and most notable of these is Bitcoin. There currencies are generally focused on replacing or working alongside an existing currency. These cryptos use their blockchain to keep track of who owns what coin.
These cryptos can also be considered a Storage of Value as it is asserted that as the number of coins is limited, and as the demand for coins grows, that the value of those coins will increase.
These cryptos are built in an operating system style network. This allows other applications to be built using the platform as a base, but while being independent themselves. Applications that are built to operate on a particular platform are called D'Apps (Decentralised Apps). The most notable of these platforms is Ethereum. Platform cryptos have their own type of currency, that is used to buy & sell the use of the platform. These currencies can be bought and sold as you do other currencies, but they are intended only to pay for use of the platforms network.
D'Apps (Application cryptos) perform a specific function, like traditional software does, but on the internet, on a webpage. Think of all the cloud products you use today such as Facebook, DropBox, Gmail, TradeMe, Youtube, or any app you run on your computer of phone. All of these will, in time, be replicated in a D'App form. They will look similar on your screen, but in the background they will be infinitely more powerful. In reality this should lead to less expensive and more secure applications for you to use in your everyday life.
To confuse things a little, D'Apps can also reply on a platform to perform the back-end functions, or it can be a standalone application, that features its own blockchain.
That all sounds easy and straightforward, right?
Well, not so fast. Its a little more complicated, and the divisions between each of these types are actually not that well defined. In fact, many cryptos are a little of one and a little of another, or all three! To make things worse, as this is still a very young and very fast emerging industry, definitions are still up for debate, and even when there is some agreement, that agreement can change when new technologies emerge. As there are new techniques, and new technologies appearing in the market every day, new types are added, and debate rages as to whether a technology fits in one place or another, or whether it is a new categories all of its own.
Let's think about some examples.
Bitcoin (BTC) - This is the most famous crypto currency, and its intention is to be a currency that replaces the use of traditional currencies.
Monero (XMR) - This is designed to be a replacement currency, and focuses on anonymity as its main feature.
Ripple (XRP) - This is designed to be a currency system focusing on transferring value between banks globally.
Ethereum (ETH) - Ethereums' main purpose is to be a platform on which applications will run, and the token (currency) is to be used to buy and sell use of the platform. However, Ethereum is currently also used for real-world transactions, that do not include use of the platform, other than to process the transaction itself.
Lisk (LSK) - Lisk is designed for applications to be built using Lisks' blockchain for the backend, and focuses on allowing the use of currently available programming languages.
Golem (GNT) - Golem is one of the first D'Apps built on Ethereum. Golem focuses on using unused global computing power to power a "super-computer" that can be used for CGI rendering, or scientific calculations for example.
Siacoin (SC) - Siacoin focuses on large scale data storage, but features its own blockchain.
So, no, cryptos are not just currencies, they are so much more. The reality is that we have barely scratched the surface of what cryptos can do.
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